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Assessment 2 – Case Study Based Essay

Assessment 2 – Case Study Based Essay

Assessment 2 Details

NSB022 Nursing Practice in Context 2 – Semester 1 2016

Assessment item 2: Academic Essay – Individual

Weighting: 40% of final unit grade

Word count: 2200 words +/- 10%

Submission: Via Assignment Minder

Please note that although you have the opportunity to discuss this case in your tutorial group and class with your tutor, this assessment piece is an individual assessment item and therefore needs to be completed individually

Essay Case Option 1: Child experiencing Anaphylaxis:

Annabelle is a 6 year old girl who has been brought to the Paediatric Emergency Department by her parents. Her parents reported that they dined at a Chinese restaurant for dinner and after returning home Annabelle began to have difficulty breathing and appeared red in the face. Annabelle has a history of peanut allergy and has an Epipen but the parents stated, “We packed it away when we moved house and we haven’t found it yet and she’s never really had any allergic reactions since she was 3 years old.”

When you assess Annabelle, she is flushed in the face and has a reddened raised rash on her arms and abdomen. She has a hoarse sounding voice and her lips and tongue appear swollen. She says “I can’t swallow or breathe and I feel dizzy.” Her respiratory rate is 25 breaths per minute and shallow. Her heart rate is 120 beats/min and her blood pressure is 85/50 mmHg. Her oxygen saturations on room air are 92%.

Essay Case Option 2: Adult with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD):

Jim is a 72 year old male admitted to the medical ward this morning with an infective exacerbation of his Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Jim has a history of smoking since he was a teenager but managed to quit 3 years ago when diagnosed with COPD. Jim noticed he had been coughing more throughout the night and his sputum had turned a thick green colour. He has also reported that he had not eaten or drunk much in the past two days as he was feeling so unwell. As you examine his mouth you note his tongue is white and his lips are cracked and dry. The urine bottle on the side of his bed contains a small amount of dark amber urine. Jim’s weight on admission is 55kgs and he is 176cms tall.

He is currently receiving 3rd hourly nebulised ventolin and is on 2L/min of oxygen via the nasal prongs. His observations are heart rate 90/min, respiratory rate 26, oxygen saturation 92%, temperature 37.8 oC. He has an IV cannula insitu and his medical chart shows that he has been prescribed 6th hourly IV hydrocortisone and IV antibiotics. When you enter the room to ask Jim how he is feeling you notice that he is sitting up on the side of his bed leaning over his bedside table and coughing. He is pale and seems to be using his shoulders and upper chest as he breathes. As you listen to his chest with the stethoscope you can hear coarse crackles and there seems to be decreased air entry in both lower lobes. He also has a prolonged expiratory phase. He responds that “I can’t seem to get my breath, and my mouth is so dry and I can’t seem to cough this stuff up.”

For this essay, select either Essay Case Option 1 (the paediatric case) or Essay Case Option 2 (the adult case).

Every patient you care for is likely to have a number of actual and potential health related problems. There are multiple problems that the patient is experiencing currently. List at least 3-4 priority problems you have identified from the above data and history and the patient goal/expected outcome for each identified problem. For each problem identified, list as many nursing interventions as you have discovered in your research of the literature. Include a one to two line rationale for each intervention. Submit this one page list with your essay.

Please be aware that the main focus should be the essay itself and not this one page list which is essentially a map or plan of your thinking about the case. We have asked for this page as sometimes students choose incorrect priority problems so this page will allow us to see if it was a problem with identification or prioritisation. As with any academic writing it should be referenced and you can include these references in your main essay reference list. Your main focus should be the essay.

For your essay, you must prioritise the problems you identified and select the two highest priority problems from your list.

The 2200 word essay should cover the points below:

· Introduction (150 words): State an overview of the patient’s condition and identify the TWO priority nursing problems. Give a brief plan for the essay topics.

· For the first problem (950 words): Briefly explain how it relates to the patient’s assessment data. You will need to draw on your understanding of pathophysiology to explain the link between the problem and the patient’s signs and symptoms. Identify TWO priority nursing interventions to address the problem. Justify the nursing interventions you will implement (explain what is involved in implementing the intervention, why it is suitable, any relevant positive or negative aspects/considerations) and support/justify the use of these interventions with reference to current evidence-based literature. Outline the evaluation criteria/data that would indicate that each intervention is improving or resolving the identified problem.

· For the second problem (950 words): Briefly explain how it relates to the patient’s assessment data. You will need to draw on your understanding of pathophysiology to explain the link between the problem and the patient’s signs and symptoms Identify TWO priority nursing interventions to address the problem. Justify the nursing interventions you will implement (explain what is involved in implementing the intervention, why it is suitable, any relevant positive or negative aspects/considerations) and support/justify the use of these interventions with reference to current evidence-based literature. Outline the evaluation criteria/data that would indicate that each intervention is improving or resolving the identified problem.

· Conclusion (150 words): Briefly restate the patient’s condition and problems and how the nursing interventions can benefit the patient’s health.

You need to discuss at least one independent nursing intervention in your essay.
For any collaborative nursing interventions you use you must discuss the nursing responsibilities and actions in relation to this collaborative intervention.
Medications cannot be both of your chosen collaborative interventions for a problem. If a medication is one of your collaborative interventions you must identify an appropriate drug that is likely to be/or has been prescribed by the doctor (in the case options some medications may have already been prescribed). You must also consider and discuss the nursing responsibilities associated with the medication (action, dose, side effects, prevention and management of same, administration requirements, evaluation).
Remember assessment is not an intervention and symptoms are not problems

NSB022 ACADEMIC ESSAY – POINTS FOR CONSIDERATION CONTINUED:

Research and Writing Guidelines:

Spend some time familiarising yourself with the chosen case study. Read the CRA sheet carefully linking it to the case study assessment question.
Use references that are primarily peer-reviewed journal articles with some book publications, published within the last seven years. Consumer websites, Wikipedia and websites that are not government-based or related to professional organisations are unacceptable. Examples of acceptable websites include:
National Health and Medical Research Council
State Departments of Health
A critical review of the evidence means synthesising the research literature from different perspectives and arguing that the chosen intervention will benefit the patient.
At least 20 high quality academic references, used appropriately, are expected to support the arguments within your essay. References must be valid and contemporary and no more than 7 years old.
Use the SafeAssign software on your assignment and include a printed copy of the final report with your assignment submission. Refer to http://blackboard.qut.edu.au/ > NSB022 > Assessment > Assessment Item 2 > Safe Assign

Formatting Guidelines:

You are expected to present your assignment in a scholarly fashion. It should conform to the following academic conventions. Penalties will apply if these conventions are not adhered to. Use the following points as a check list prior to submission

A fully completed signed assignment minder submission form with correct information including your tutor’s name must be attached to the front of the cardboard envelope for submission to Assignment Minder
The assignment cover sheet is attached to the assignment prior to submission (use the template below)
Ensure your cover sheet has your tutor’s name on it.
An assessment criteria sheet should be attached for all written assignments
The assignment should be stapled in the top left-hand corner
You may have plus/minus 200 words of the designated word count, this includes in-text references but not the reference list.
Include a footer with page numbers “x of y” with your name and student number on all pages
Use a separate page for references. The reference page is not included in the word count
A full reference list is required at the end of the assignment and the 1 page list of priority problems.
Reference according to QUT, APA conventions only. Please refer to QUT Cite/Write for these referencing conventions.
Bullet points and numbering are not appropriate in this assessment item
Use size 12 font, Times New Roman, Arial, or Calibri font and 1.5 line spacing for all assignments, left and right justify, and ensure margins of 2.5 cm on the right and left of the page.
Submit your assignment to Assignment minder by the due date. Assessment submitted after the due date without an approved extension will not be marked and will receive a grade of 1 or 0%. Please refer to the Faculty of Health ‘Late submission of assessment’ policy and the ‘Application for assessment/ assignment extension form’ located on the Blackboard site.

https://blackboard.qut.edu.au/webapps/blackboard/content/listContent.jsp?course_id=_124575_1&content_id=_6129266_1

Username – n9507566
Password – Pursuit1

FOLLOW ALL INSTRUCTIONS CLEARLY, USE LECTURE NOTES AND ANY RESOURCES ON THE ABOVE WEBSITE.

Academic Language and Learning Service & Faculty of Health Updated January 2013 CRICOS Code: 00213J APA 6 th Edition – STYLE REFERENCE PAGE Look at these examples of sources found on QUT Databases Instructions: Change them into QUT APA 6th Edition References (see answers below) Examples from Databases Postoperative pulmonary complications E. Trayner, Jr, and B.Celli Medical Clinics of North America, 2001, Volume 85, Issue 5, Pages 1129-1139 doi: 10.1016/S0025-7125(05)70368-0 Maintaining healthy lungs: The role of airway clearance therapy Jane Braverman The Exceptional Parent; Aug 2001; 31, 8; pg. 126, 4 pages Academic Research Library database: http://www.eparent.com/ POSTOPERATIVE PULMONARY DYSFUNCTION IN ADULTS AFTER CARDIAC SURGERY WITH CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS: CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE Rochelle Wynne and Mari Botti, RN, BA (Melb) AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CRITICAL CARE, September 2004, Volume 13, No. 5 pg.384, 11 pgs ISSN: 1062-3264 MEDLINE Info: PMID: 15470854 NLM UID: 9211547 Publisher Info: URL: www.cinahl.com/cgi-bin/refsvc?jid=607&accno=2004189480 Accession Number: 2004189480 **No doi available** American Journal of Critical Care homepage http://ajcc.aacnjournals.org/ Alphabetical order by author’s family name. 1 – 1.5 line spacing, indent (use TAB key or rulers) 2nd line Follow QUT APA CITE│WRITE guidelines for all sources ANSWERS From the database examples above, this is what your reference page should look like: REFERENCES Braverman, J. (2001). Maintaining healthy lungs: The role of airway clearance therapy. The Exceptional Parent, 31(8), 126 – 129. Retrieved from: http://www.eparent.com/ Trayner, E. Jr., & Celli, B. (2001). Postoperative pulmonary complications. Medical Clinics of North America, 85(5), 1129-1139. doi: 10.1016/S0025-7125(05)70368-0 Wynne, R., & Botti, M. (2004). Postoperative pulmonary dysfunction in adults after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass: Clinical significance and implications for practice. American Journal of Critical Care, 13(5), 384 – 394. Retrieved from: http://ajcc.aacnjournals.org/

Cover Page & Student Checklist for Submission

NSB022 Case Study Based Essay

Item Checked
Student Name:___________________________________

 

Student ID:______________________________________

 

Unit Name: NSB022 Nursing Practice in Context 2.

Case Study Based Essay

 

Case Option:______________________________________

 

DUE DATEMonday 16th May 2016 (Week 11)

Due before Assignment Minder closing time on Monday night. Check closing times ta your campus.

Extension Date:____________________________________

Unit Co-coordinator:  Joanne Cupples

 

Tutor’s  Name:____________________________________

 

Tutorial  Group Day and Time:_______________________

 

Word Count: ______________________________________

 

One page list of problems and interventions (Reference Page included)

 

Safe Assign full report attached

Percentage Score for Recognized text

 (Ensure enclosed Safe Assign report is full copy of essay from Safe Assign that shows recognized text)

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QUT Blackboard student tipsheet: SafeAssign This is the print-friendly version of the following page: http://www.els.qut.edu.au/blendedlearning/blackboard/students/tipsheets/safeassign.jsp [Return to original version] SafeAssign is a text-matching tool that identifies possible instances of incorrect citation or plagiarism. It can help you to develop the academic skills required to correctly use and cite reference material and avoid plagiarism. How SafeAssign works As a student, you will interact with SafeAssign by submitting a SafeAssignment in QUT Blackboard. When you upload a document to a SafeAssignment submission area, SafeAssign checks the document against a number of sources including internet sites, online journal articles, an institutional database of files previously submitted at QUT, and the SafeAssign Global Reference Database of files voluntarily submitted by students at other institutions. When you submit a SafeAssignment, your file will be added to QUT’s institutional database (unless it is a draft — which is decided by your coordinator). However, you can choose whether or not your file will be submitted to the Global Reference Database. After you’ve submitted your SafeAssignment, a SafeAssign report will be produced and can be viewed via your QUT Blackboard unit site (except in the case of final reports, which are only available to coordinators). This report will identify other sources with text that matches, or is similar, to text in your assignment. The report will also give the assignment an approximate score, indicating the amount of material that matches the other sources. The coordinator has the choice to make a report either ‘student viewable’ or ‘not student viewable’. Therefore, you might not be able to access the report for each SafeAssignment submission you make — see below for further information on what the report contains. Submitting a SafeAssignment SafeAssignments are assignments that are integrated with SafeAssign’s checking system. When the assignment is submitted, it is checked for text that matches or is similar to existing sources in SafeAssign’s database. SafeAssignments can be identified by their icon: Please note: Because SafeAssign is delivered by an externally located service provider, you will require an active internet connection to submit SafeAssignments and view their reports. To submit a SafeAssignment: QUT | eLearning Services | QUT Blackboard student tipsheet: SafeAssign http://www.els.qut.edu.au/blendedlearning/blackboard/students/tipsheets/… 1 of 7 16/04/2013 12:59 PM 1. Click the SafeAssignment’s View/Complete link. This will then open the Upload SafeAssignment page. Check the assignment’s name, e.g. ‘Essay 2’. If (Draft) is shown after the assignment’s name, this indicates that the file you upload will not be added to the institutional database. 2. 3. Review the Instructions, under Assignment Information. 4. If you wish, you can enter Comments to accompany your uploaded file. To upload your file, click the button next to File to Attach and navigate to the file on your computer. 5. File size and format The file you upload must be smaller than 10MB and be in one of the following formats: .doc, .docx, .odt, .txt, .rtf, .html or .pdf. Optional: If the SafeAssignment is not a draft version, you will also have the option of submitting your paper to SafeAssign’s Global Reference Database. This is entirely voluntary. If you want to add your paper to the global database, tick the checkbox next to I agree to submit my paper to the Global Reference Database. Once submitted to this database the document is not retrievable. 6. QUT | eLearning Services | QUT Blackboard student tipsheet: SafeAssign http://www.els.qut.edu.au/blendedlearning/blackboard/students/tipsheets/… 2 of 7 16/04/2013 12:59 PM Click the button to submit your assignment. A warning message will appear the top of the page: It may take a few seconds for your file to upload. When this is complete, you will be returned to the page containing the link to the SafeAssignment and will receive a message stating that the SafeAssignment was successfully submitted. Until you see this message, be sure not to navigate away from the page, or use the ‘Back’ or ‘Reload/Refresh’ buttons on your browser. 7. Viewing a SafeAssign report Depending on the settings chosen by your coordinator, after submitting a SafeAssignment you may be able to view a SafeAssign report. Note that this report is not generated immediately, but may take from several minutes up to several hours. Remember: you will require an active internet connection to submit SafeAssignments and view their reports To check the availability of a SafeAssign report: 1. Click the SafeAssignment’s View/Complete link. This will open the View SafeAssignment page. A View SafeAssignment page will display the following: the assignment name and description date submitted grade achieved feedback from teaching staff. The following options will also be available: You can click the icon (under Text) to see a plain text version of the file you submitted. You can click the icon (under File) to open the actual file you submitted. 2. If your coordinator has allowed student viewing of SafeAssign reports for this assignment, there will be two extra columns, Matching and SA Report, which can be found under the heading Submitted Work. 3. QUT | eLearning Services | QUT Blackboard student tipsheet: SafeAssign http://www.els.qut.edu.au/blendedlearning/blackboard/students/tipsheets/… 3 of 7 16/04/2013 12:59 PM If these columns show dashes, this means the report hasn’t been generated, and you should allow some more time for this process to be completed. If the report has been generated, the Matching column will show a percentage, indicating the amount of text in your assignment matching other sources (see below for further information on this). The SA Report column will contain a small ‘SafeAssign’ icon. 4. Click the icon under SA Report to open the report. Interpreting the SafeAssign report The SafeAssign report indicates the percentage of text in your assignment that matches or is similar to other sources. The report also highlights these sections of text and provides details on where the matching sources can be found. What the ‘Matching’ score means The overall Matching score is an indicator of what percentage of the text in the submitted file matches existing sources. You do not need to aim for a score of 0%. SafeAssign have given the following indication as to how overall Matching scores might be used. Please note this is a guide only. Scores below 15%: These papers typically include some quotes and a few common phrases or blocks of text that match other documents. These papers typically do not require further analysis, as there is no evidence of the possibility of plagiarism in these papers. Scores between 15 and 40%: These papers include extensive quoted or paraphrased material or they may include plagiarism. These papers should be reviewed to determine if the matching content is properly attributed. Scores over 40%: There is a very high probability that text in this paper was copied from other sources. These papers include quoted or paraphrased text in excess and should be reviewed for plagiarism. To view a SafeAssign report, click into a SafeAssignment you’ve already submitted, then click the icon from the View SafeAssignment page. QUT | eLearning Services | QUT Blackboard student tipsheet: SafeAssign http://www.els.qut.edu.au/blendedlearning/blackboard/students/tipsheets/… 4 of 7 16/04/2013 12:59 PM The SafeAssign report consists of three or four sections: Paper Information: Details of the submitted assignment, including the Matching score. Submission Comment: If you entered a comment along with your file submission, this will display the comment entered. Suspected Sources: This is the list of sources containing text that matches or is similar to text in your submitted file. (There may also be Excluded Sources listed here, if your coordinator has chosen to exclude any sources from the matching process.) Paper Text: This is the text of the submitt
ed file. Text matched to other sources is shown in blue, and the number of the relevant source is shown at the beginning of the each block of matching text. The following options are available from within the SafeAssign report: You can use any of the following methods to highlight matched text. Each source and its matching text will use a different colour of highlighting. Hold your cursor over the source URL in the Suspected Sources section to temporarily highlight text matched to that source. Click the Highlight Source icon next to a source to turn on highlighting of text matched to that source. Click the button to highlight all matched text in the document. 1. QUT | eLearning Services | QUT Blackboard student tipsheet: SafeAssign http://www.els.qut.edu.au/blendedlearning/blackboard/students/tipsheets/… 5 of 7 16/04/2013 12:59 PM To remove all highlighting, click the button. You can examine the matching of particular text in greater detail, by clicking a sentence in the Paper Text section. This will produce a mini window showing the following: URL: The URL that the text was matched to, plus a Matching score indicating how precise the match for this sentence is. You can click the URL to go to the matched source. Uploaded Manuscript: The sentence as it appears in the file you submitted. Internet Source: The sentence as it appears in the matched source. 2. Click the button at the top right of the mini window to close it. If you want to save or print the report, or email it to someone else, the following options are available on the right-hand side of the Paper Information section: 3. You can click the icon to Save report to disk. This will allow you to save the report as a very basic .html or QUT | eLearning Services | QUT Blackboard student tipsheet: SafeAssign http://www.els.qut.edu.au/blendedlearning/blackboard/students/tipsheets/… 6 of 7 16/04/2013 12:59 PM .txt file You can click the icon to re-load the report as a Print version. This can then be printed using the Print link in the top-right corner of the View SafeAssignment page. You can click the icon to open a new email containing a link that anyone can use to get to the report. You can right-click Direct link and select Copy Shortcut from the pop-up menu to copy the report’s direct link to the clipboard in order to paste it into another document. Copyright © QUT. All rights reserved. Queensland University of Technology CRICOS No. 00213J Last modified 11-Dec-2012 QUT | eLearning Services | QUT Blackboard student tipsheet: SafeAssign http://www.els.qut.edu.au/blendedlearning/blackboard/students/tipsheets/… 7 of 7 16/04/2013 12:59 PM

Starting the Case Study Essay: Analysing the Question Connections for Learning Program – Faculty of Health and Academic Language and Learning Services Step 1: Analyse the assessment task. Task 1 (appendix activity): Key Words (what do I write about) Directive Verbs (how do I write about it?) Writing Instructions/notes Task 2: The 2200-case study essay Key Words (what do I write about) Directive Verbs (how do I write it?) Writing Instructions/notes Introduction (150 wds) 950 wds: Nursing Problem 1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Conclusion (150 wds) Step 2: Read the Criteria Sheet: Identify the most important areas of assessment for the content. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. (academic writing requirements: language, referencing, word count) CRICOS Code: 00213J 1 Step 3: Brainstorm: What do I know? What do I need to find out/learn? Priority Nursing Problems for Patient Data Nursing Intervention Details: (what isit, why is it suitable, pos/neg aspects, independent/collaborative) I know . . . Need to learn . . . I know . . . Need to learn . . . Problem 1 Problem 1 Intervention 1 Patient Data Problem 1 Intervention 2 Problem 2 Problem 2 Intervention 1 Patient Data Problem 2 Intervention 2 Evaluation Criteria/Data for Interventions Problem 1 Interventions: evaluation data Problem 2 Interventions: evaluation data Intervention 1 Intervention 2 Intervention 1 Intervention 2 CRICOS Code: 00213J 2 Step 4: Key words for searching databases (a list of vocabulary items) Step 5: Read, Think & Discuss • Do I understand the most important issues? • Have I answered the question (directly)? • Am I thinking in terms of the PRIORITY PROBLEMS, PATIENT DATA and NURSING INTERVENTIONS? • Have I found at least 3 evidenced based sources to support the interventions for my patient’s problem? CRICOS Code: 00213J 3

Starting the Case Study Essay: Analysing the Question Connections for Learning Program – Faculty of Health and Academic Language and Learning Services CRICOS Code: 00213J 1 Step 1: Analyse the assessment task. Task 1 (appendix activity): Key Words (what do I write about) Directive Verbs (how do I write about it?) Writing Instructions/notes 3-4 PRIORITY Problems & Patient Goal for Problems List (table form) Nursing interventions List Based on research (need references) Rationale – why? Write a sentence Task 2: The 2200-case study essay Key Words (what do I write about) Directive Verbs (how do I write it?) Writing Instructions/notes Introduction (150 wds) Patient overview: summary of case State Give a brief pplan Essay topics (problems. Interventions) 950 wds Nursing Problem 1 1. Briefly Explain Pathophysiology and Pt’s data  2 priority nursing interventions 2. Identify  2 priority nursing interventions 3. Discuss briefly  What is involved?  Why is it suitable?  Positive/negative considerations for pt?  2 priority nursing interventions 4. Support/justify Current evidence-based literature  Evaluation Criteria 5. Outline Improving/resolving problem Conclusion (150 wds) Briefly restate Pt condition/problem. interventions Step 2: CRA 1. comprehensive link between pt signs/symptoms and PRIORITY PROBLEMS 2. comprehensive pt assessment data to identify correctly PRIORITY PROBLEMS 3. comprehensive EVALUATION CRITERIA to measure PRIORITY INTERVENTIONS 4. complex justifications for PRIORITY INTERVENTIONS for case scenario PROBLEMS 5. argued for RELEVLANCE/APPROPRIATENESS of NURSING INTERVENTIONS 6. reference to WIDE RANGE, HIGH QUALITY, RECENT, RELEVANT evidence 7. (academic writing requirements: language, referencing, word count)

Starting the Case Study Essay: Analysing the Question Connections for Learning Program – Faculty of Health and Academic Language and Learning Services CRICOS Code: 00213J 1 Step 1: Analyse the assessment task. Task 1 (appendix activity): Key Words (what do I write about) Directive Verbs (how do I write about it?) Writing Instructions/notes Task 2: The 2200-case study essay Key Words (what do I write about) Directive Verbs (how do I write it?) Writing Instructions/notes Introduction (150 wds) 950 wds: Nursing Problem 1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Conclusion (150 wds) Step 2: Read the Criteria Sheet: Identify the most important areas of assessment for the content. 1. ___________________________________________________________ 2. ___________________________________________________________ 3. ___________________________________________________________ 4. ___________________________________________________________ 5. ___________________________________________________________ 6. ___________________________________________________________ 7. (academic writing requirements: language, referencing, word count) CRICOS Code: 00213J 2 Step 3: Brainstorm: What do I know? What do I need to find out/learn? Priority Nursing Problems for Patient Data Nursing Intervention Details: (what is it, why is it suitable, pos/neg aspects, independent/collaborative) I know . . . Need to learn . . . I know . . . Need to learn . . . Problem 1 Problem 1 Intervention 1 Patient Data Problem 1 Intervention 2 Problem 2 Problem 2 Intervention 1 Patient Data Problem 2 Intervention 2 Evaluation Criteria/Data for Interventions Problem 1 Interventions: evaluation data Problem 2 Interventions: evaluation data Intervention 1 Intervention 2 Intervention 1 Intervention 2 CRICOS Code: 00213J 3 Step 4: Key words for searching databases (a list of vocabulary items) Step 5: Read, Think & Discuss  Do I understand the most important issues?  Have I answered the question (directly)?  Am I thinking in terms of the PRIORITY PROBLEMS, PATIENT DATA and NURSING INTERVENTIONS?  Have I found at least 3 evidenced based sources to support the interventions for my patient’s problem?

Writing a Case Study Essay: NSB022 Assessment 2 Connections for Learning Program – Faculty of Health and Academic Language and Learning Services CRICOS Code: 00213J Step 1: Organising the 2200-word case study ESSAY Introduction: 150 words (approx.) Priority Problem 1: 950 words for two interventions + evaluation criteria Priority Problem 2: 950 words for two interventions + evaluation criteria Conclusion: 150 words (approx.) Step 2: Organise ideas into an outline before writing Introduction (150 words) Topic Sentence: Focus on the Patient • Provide Overview of problems • Identify focus for this essay (2 problems) • Identify interventions for this essay (4 interventions for 2 problems) • Thesis Statement Nursing Problem 1 (950 wds) and (Nursing Problem 2) Paragraph 1 (focus on patient problem/data) Topic Sentence Identify patient problem • Provide most relevant patient data from case study • Explain how the data is related to the problem (pathophysiology) – use references Paragraph 2 (focus on Intervention 1) Topic Sentence (provides the key words that answer the question) • Identify Intervention 1 to match the priority nursing problem 1 • Identify what type of intervention it is (independent nursing/collaborative) • Define/explain the theory (use citations: summaries/paraphrases) • Use the evidence based literature to: o Explain what the intervention is (reference) o Explain the process in doing the interventions (reference) o Explain why it is suitable/appropriate Concluding Sentence: Link patient data & evidence from references): the intervention will resolve/manage/relieve which of the patient signs/symptoms/abnormal data? Paragraph 3 (continued focus on Intervention 1) Topic Sentence • Discuss advantages/disadvantages/risks of intervention based on research • Use the evidence based literature to: o Point out benefits/risks • Link risks/benefits to the patient’s situation/medical condition Concluding Sentence (repeat key words & emphasise why intervention is suitable for the patient. Writing a Case Study Essay: NSB022 Assessment 2 Connections for Learning Program – Faculty of Health and Academic Language and Learning Services Nursing Problem 1 (950 wds con’t.) Paragraph 4 (Intervention 2) Topic Sentence (provides the key words that answer the question) • Identify Intervention 2 to match the priority nursing problem 1 • Identify what type of intervention it is (independent nursing/collaborative) • Define/explain the theory (use citations: summaries/paraphrases) • Use the evidence based literature to: o Explain what the intervention is (reference) o Explain the process in doing the interventions (reference) o Explain why it is suitable/appropriate Concluding Sentence: Link patient data & evidence from references): the intervention will resolve/manage/relieve which of the patient signs/symptoms/abnormal data? Paragraph 5 (continued focus on Intervention 2) Topic Sentence • Discuss advantages/disadvantages/risks of intervention based on research • Use the evidence based literature to: o Point out benefits/risks • Link risks/benefits to the patient’s situation/medical condition Concluding Sentence (repeat key words & emphasise why intervention is suitable Paragraph 6 (Evaluation Criteria) Topic Sentence: • Identify types of evaluation data for Nursing Problem 1 + Intervention 1 + 2 • Explain specific data to show patient is improving or problem is resolved • Link measurements to patient data • Use literature to support evaluation measurements Conclusion (100-150 words) • Review patient problems • Identify interventions discussed in the essay • Re-state benefits of interventions to resolve the problems Reference List (words do not count) CRICOS Code: 00213J

cite write Your introductory guide to citing, referencing and academic writing at QUT www.citewrite.qut.edu.au Feedback ask.qut.edu.au We welcome your comments on this booklet. If you have any suggestions or advice you can provide feedback via AskQUT. Go to AskQUT and Ask a Question or give feedback. This publication is accurate as at January 2016. Please visit the service website for the most up-to-date information. Find specific examples for QUT referencing styles at www.citewrite.qut.edu.au cite 1 cite|write www.citewrite.qut.edu.au Contents Citing and referencing 2 Why do it? 2 QUT’s recommended reference styles 3 Which style should I use? 3 Citing in brief 4 In-text citation 4 Citation using an author–date style 4 Citation using a numbered style 5 Citing legal cases and legislation 5 Direct quotations: copying words exactly 6 Short quotations 6 Long quotations 7 Acceptable changes to the original wording 7 Indirect quotations/paraphrase: rewriting original words 8 Summaries: referring to the source’s main ideas 8 Reference lists 9 Build your own reference! 10 Bibliographic management tools 11 cite|write www.citewrite.qut.edu.au 2 Citing and referencing At university, you are expected to cite and reference all information you use in your assignments. Citing is when you use and acknowledge someone else’s work to support your argument or illustrate your point. Referencing is when you give bibliographic information—details such as author’s family name and the date and title of publication—about the sources you used in your work. You can watch the short video below for an overview of citing and referencing. Referencing: The basics www.youtube.com/user/libraryqut Why do it? We cite to acknowledge someone else’s work. You need to cite when you: • use a direct quote from someone else • give a summary of someone else’s ideas • paraphrase someone else’s ideas • copy some information (such as a picture, a table or some statistics). We reference to provide details about the sources that have been cited. You need to reference in order to: • acknowledge (give credit for) facts and ideas you have used • help other readers find the original facts and ideas or works that you have used • show readers the depth and quality of your reading and research. Citing and referencing are essential to avoid plagiarism. Plagiarism is a form of academic dishonesty that incurs severe penalties at QUT. Plagiarism is when you do not give credit to the author/s for information you used in your work. You may have used it by: • copying the work of another student • directly copying any part of another person’s work (even if you bought it) • directly copying and pasting information from the internet • paraphrasing or summarising someone else’s ideas without citing the author • using the main idea or thesis from someone else’s work • using experimental results from someone else’s work. Did you know? You can become familiar with your responsibilities by reading about academic honesty at www.citewrite.qut.edu.au/academichonesty Academic integrity QUT www.youtube.com/user/libraryqut 3 cite|write www.citewrite.qut.edu.au QUT’s recommended reference styles Universities have standard referencing styles that help you to cite consistently and avoid plagiarism. QUT recommends four referencing styles: • QUT APA: an author–date style • QUT Harvard: an author–date style • QUT Numbered (Vancouver): a numbered style • QUT Legal: a footnote style. This print guide provides examples using QUT APA. Examples using other styles can be found at www.citewrite.qut.edu.au Which style should I use? Your unit outline should indicate which style to use in your work. If you have any queries about the style to use, ask your lecturer or tutor. Go to www.citewrite.qut.edu.au to see examples of how to apply each style to different types of resources. The online tool shows you how to format your reference list and in-text citations. It also provides rules to follow if you have incomplete reference details (e.g. no date or place of publication) or if you need to reference non-standard resources (e.g. an email or a podcast). Step 1. Step 2. Refer to Build your own reference on p.10 to better understand the components of a reference. This will also help you with constructing a non-standard reference. QUT APA QUT Harvard QUT Legal QUT Numbered Types of Books Books Print Journal articles Electronic book (ebook) Newspaper articles Chapter in and edited book Online materials Edition other than the first Creative works Dictionary/encyclopaedia Public documents Conference paper and proceedings Figures Thesis or dissertation (unpublished) QUT Resources and Personal Communications QUT cite cite write QUT APA QUT Harvard QUT Legal QUT Numbered Types of Books Example for QUT APA – Books – Print Print In-text According to Neal (2005, p. 32) … OR “… this is not comparable” (Neal, 2005, p. 3) Reference List Neal, M. J. (2005). Medical pharmacology at a glance (5th ed.). Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. NOTE: For first editions, omit all edition information. Electronic book (ebook) Chapter in and edited book Edition other than the first Dictionary/encyclopaedia Conference paper and proceedings Authors? DOIs? Thesis or dissertation (unpublished) Publication details? Page numbers? QUT Resources and Personal Communications Need help? Ask a Librarian QUT cite cite write cite|write www.citewrite.qut.edu.au 4 Citing in brief In-text citation Any information (words, ideas, statistics, tables, data, pictures, photos, etc.) obtained from another author or source, whether it is used in a direct quotation or as a paraphrase, requires an in-text citation that will later be provided in full in a reference list. Facts and ideas that are considered common knowledge within a discipline do not need to be cited. For example, Einstein’s theory of mass-energy equivalence (e=mc2 ) would not need to be cited. Citation using an author–date style When you add a citation into your text using an author–date style (such as QUT APA or QUT Harvard), you need to include the following information in the sentence or paragraph: • Author’s family name or name of the source (organisation, government department, etc.). • Year of publication—look for the copyright symbol © in the source. This is usually in the front pages of a book or at the bottom of an internet page. • Page number where you found the information (or paragraph (¶) number if there is no page number on it). Summaries of information/sources often do not require page numbers if the information comes from many pages. Check with your lecturer or tutor if you are not sure. Example “You must cite the sources of each idea or item of information you use, whether you quote, paraphrase or summarise or merely refer to it” (Harris, 2005, p. 5). author’s family name year page This information can be included either at the beginning or the end of the sentence or paragraph. Example At the beginning: Marras et al. (1995) note that peak load moment has been suggested to play a major role in defining lower back disorder risk. At the end: Peak load moment has been suggested to play a major role in defining lower back disorder risk (Marras et al., 1995). Go to www.citewrite.qut.edu.au to see examples in QUT APA, QUT Harvard, QUT Numbered and QUT Legal. 5 cite|write www.citewrite.qut.edu.au Citation using a numbered style When adding a citation in your text, either place a superscript number (start at1 ) or a number in brackets (1) at the end of the information you are citing. Example At the beginning: Marras et al.1 note that peak load moment has been suggested to play a major role in defining lower back disorder risk. This number is then used to indicate the bibliographic information in the reference list. Citing legal cases and legislation Legal writing employs a numbered note style to reference its footnotes. This refers the reader to the relevant numbered note at the bottom (or ‘foot’) of the page where the information is provided. Students studying Law units at QUT are required to use the citati
on standard Australian Guide to Legal Citation, 3rd ed. (AGLC3), referred to in citelwrite as QUT Legal. If you are using a ‘non-law’ reference style such as QUT Harvard for your writing, follow the requirements for that style for referencing sources. Go to www.citewrite.qut.edu.au to see examples in QUT APA, QUT Harvard, QUT Numbered and QUT Legal. cite|write www.citewrite.qut.edu.au 6 Direct quotations: copying words exactly When directly quoting, remember to: • copy the words exactly from the original source • include the author, date and page number as the in-text citation. A general guideline is to use no more than 10 per cent of the word count as direct quotes in your assignment, however check your faculty guidelines as some disciplines have different requirements. Did you know? Some students think it is okay to copy and paste more than three words as long as you add the author/source name. This is not true. If you copy more than three words you must also have quotation marks. Short quotations Add quotation marks around the copied words. Example author’s family name year page Harris (2005, p. 5) writes “you must cite the sources of each idea or item of information you use, whether you quote, paraphrase or summarise or merely refer to it”. Note quotation marks to open and close If the quotation includes another quotation made in the original, use the opposite type of quotation marks (i.e. ‘…’) to those (“…”) that you used first. Did you know? You can use your own judgement on what constitutes a short quote. As a general rule, APA suggests fewer than 40 words and Harvard suggests fewer than 100 words. Go to www.citewrite.qut.edu.au to see examples in QUT APA, QUT Harvard, QUT Numbered and QUT Legal. 7 cite|write www.citewrite.qut.edu.au Long quotations Long quotations use a different style to distinguish them from your normal text. • Use a block quotation (i.e. not part of your sentence) • Indent the block from the left and right margins • Use single spacing for the block • Do not use quotation marks for the block • Include citation details either as a lead in to the block or at the end (see example for ‘end’ placement). Example In Using Sources Effectively, Harris describes many different ways students should reference their work in academic institutions. The author believes that students must understand the importance of referencing: An important part of using sources effectively lies in distinguishing between your own ideas and the ideas that come from outside sources… When you make use of words, ideas or any information from a source other than your own knowledge and experience, you must give credit to the source in a citation (Harris, 2005, p. 1). Referencing is clearly an important skill for students who wish to succeed in academic courses. Acceptable changes to the original wording If the original source has a grammar or spelling mistake that might be confusing, you should copy the mistake and add [sic] after the mistake. Note that [sic] must be in italics and in square brackets. However, there are three situations where it is acceptable to change the original words slightly: 1. You can change the capitalisation of the letter of the first word of the quotation to fit the flow of your sentence. In the example below, the ‘A’ of ‘As’ has been changed to a lower case ‘a’: Harris (2005, p. 35) says “as you work on your paper visit your instructor to ask for input”. 2. You can add words in square brackets [ ] to make the meaning of the quote clearer to the reader: “Government [Queensland State] is concerned about the cost of water” (Courier Mail, 2007, p. 1). 3. You can use an ellipsis ( … ) to show that you are leaving words out: “There is one exception to the rule of citing outside information. Common knowledge does not need to be cited … whatever an educated person would be expected to know or could locate in an ordinary encyclopedia” (Harris, 2005, p. 17). cite|write www.citewrite.qut.edu.au 8 Indirect quotations/paraphrase: rewriting original words Paraphrasing is writing the ideas of another author in your own words. • When writing in your own words, you can still retain technical terms that do not have synonyms. • Make sure you accurately represent the source/author’s ideas. • If you paraphrase, you still need to provide an in-text citation. • Page numbers are not always required for paraphrases. Check with your lecturer or tutor if you are unsure. Example Direct quotation Cope (2007, p. 21) says that “plagiarism, a failure to acknowledge sources of material correctly, is an offence against professional standards and is a form of academic dishonesty”. Paraphrase According to Cope (2007, p. 21) plagiarism occurs when writers do not reference ideas, and this is a very serious offence. How to paraphrase www.youtube.com/user/libraryqut Summaries: referring to the source’s main ideas All ideas that are not your own should be cited (and later referenced). When you refer to general ideas or just want to acknowledge that an idea came from a secondary resource, then your in-text citation does not require a page number. Example Plagiarism is an issue that all students should be aware of (Cope, 2007). If you read from many sources and have written ideas in your own words, but you know that you learned these ideas from other people, list their names alphabetically in your in-text citation using a semicolon (;) to separate the sources. Example Academic writing is more formal and more complicated than informal writing, especially when authors need to consider acknowledging referencing (Cope, 2007; Oshima & Hogue, 1991; Putnis & Petelin, 1999). Go to www.citewrite.qut.edu.au to see examples in QUT APA, QUT Harvard, QUT Numbered and QUT Legal. 9 cite|write www.citewrite.qut.edu.au Reference lists A reference list contains details of every resource cited in your assignment. The reference list is placed at the end of your assignment and should start on a new page. When you research and prepare for assessment, it is important to take down the full bibliographic details (including the page numbers) of the source from which the information is taken. It is very time consuming to follow up references later. Details could include: • Author • Date • Title • Digital object identifier (doi) • Volumes/numbers • Journal title • Date reviewed • Database used • Page numbers. Referencing: Using sources www.youtube.com/user/libraryqut Example reference list Abu-Taieh, E. M. O., & El-Sheikh, A. A. (2010). Handbook of research on discrete event simulation environments: Technologies and applications [IGI Global edition]. doi:10.4018/978-1-60566-774-4 Fox, G., & Manley, M. (2009). Hardness methods for testing maize kernels. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 57, 5647–5657. doi: 10.1021/jf900623 Kildea, S. (1992). Risk and childbirth in rural and remote Australia. In J. Bailey, D. du Plessis, & D. Lennox (Eds.), Infrontoutback: Proceedings of the 2nd Biennial Australian Rural and Remote Health Conference (pp. 60–66). Toowoomba, Qld: Cunningham Centre. Go to www.citewrite.qut.edu.au/cite/formatting.jsp for more information about formatting reference lists in the different styles. You can also watch a video. Referencing: Formatting for assignments www.youtube.com/user/libraryqut Did you know? Bibliographies are different from reference lists. They include references used in the assignment plus other relevant or useful sources not quoted from but used in the preparation of the assignment. You can usually find this information at the beginning of a book or journal article. cite|write www.citewrite.qut.edu.au 10 Who is responsible for creating the work? • Author(s) • Organisations • Directors • Artists When was the work created? • Year • In press • Year, month, date (if continually updated) What is the work called? • Title • Journal title • Book and chapter title • Website title Where can you find the work? • Where it was published • Journal volume, issues and pages • Where it is archived online Regardle
ss of style, all references are essentially made up of four key elements … Build your own reference! No style guide provides examples for all possible references. You may need to construct your own using components of a variety of examples. If in doubt, ask at the Library Helpdesk. WHO WHEN WHAT WHERE 11 cite|write www.citewrite.qut.edu.au Bibliographic management tools There are bibliographic management tools available to assist you with citing and referencing. These online and software applications integrate with word processing applications to automatically insert and format citations and references into your assignments. Undergraduate essays or reports usually need only 10 to 20 references to scholarly information. In these cases, it is often easier to format your references and citations manually, using the examples in QUT cite|write online as a guide. Understanding the principles of correct referencing is an important academic skill—formatting your references will help you build your understanding, accuracy and confidence. Writing an extensive academic paper or report, however, means you must record many, sometimes hundreds, of references. Using a bibliographic management tool may be a more efficient solution to help you manage your references over an extended period of time. However, you will still need to understand the principles of referencing and citing to be able to proofread carefully to ensure that there are no mistakes in the final formatting. If you are unsure whether to manually format your references or use a software application, ask your lecturer or tutor for their advice about which method is suitable for your assessment, or ask at the Library Helpdesk for more information. QUT Library has created a subject guide that lists some strengths and weaknesses of various bibliographic management tools. It is available at the following link: www.library.qut.edu.au/research/toolkit/referencing/other.jsp For more help or information, ask at the library—in person or online www.library.qut.edu.au/help cite|write www.citewrite.qut.edu.au 12write Find guides for note taking and writing assignments at www.citewrite.qut.edu.au 13 cite|write www.citewrite.qut.edu.au Contents Academic writing style 14 Precise expression 14 Impersonal, objective tone 14 Formal language 14 Tentative conclusions 15 Academic writing terms 16 Abstract 16 Active and passive voice 16 Argument 16 Authoritative source 16 Cite | citing | citation 16 Conclusion 16 Critical 16 Evidence 16 Introduction 17 Paraphrase 17 Peer reviewed (scholarly) article 17 Person 17 Point of view 17 Reference 17 Research 17 Scope 18 Thesis statement 18 Word limit 18 Task analysis 19 Academic writing structure 21 Overview 21 Introduction 22 Body paragraphs 23 Conclusion 24 Linking it all together 25 Integrating evidence 26 Critical thinking 27 cite|write www.citewrite.qut.edu.au 14 Academic writing style At university you will be expected to write using academic style and structure. Academic writing style describes the language you use to clearly explain the ideas that you develop based on your research. There are four main features of an academic writing style: Precise expression • Be concise. Every point should relate directly to your assignment topic. • Use verbs rather than adverbs (e.g. ‘she argued’ is shorter than ‘she said forcefully’). • Keep your sentences short. Each sentence should express a single idea. • Use the specialist and technical language of your discipline. Impersonal, objective tone • Use non-emotive and non-judgemental language (e.g. the term ‘killed for food’ is more neutral in tone than ‘cruelly massacred for meat’). • Use non-discriminatory, inclusive language (e.g. the use of ‘all men’ for all people is not considered inclusive as it leaves out any reference to women). • Focus your sentences on the concepts you are discussing rather than the people involved (e.g. ‘sleeping patterns are shorter’ rather than ‘people don’t sleep as much’). Formal language Most writing will follow these rules but there are exceptions, so check with your lecturer or tutor. • Write in complete sentences that are structured into paragraphs (see p. 23 for more information on how to write effective paragraphs). • Write in third person, unless otherwise specified in your assessment guidelines (refer to p. 17 Person for more detail). • Do not use contractions (e.g. rather than ‘can’t’, ‘wouldn’t’ or ‘don’t’ , use ‘cannot’, ‘would not’ and ‘do not’). • Do not use abbreviations such as ‘etc.’ ‘e.g.’ or ‘fig.’ Write these terms in full. • In academic writing, however, there are different types of abbreviations and in some instances they are acceptable. • Acronyms such as TAFE or Qantas (which are pronounceable words made up from the first letter of a series of words) are generally acceptable as they are common usage terms. • Initialisms contain the first letter of each word and are not pronounceable and not punctuated, such as ‘QUT’. Although technically QUT is an initialism, it is referred to as an acronym. When using initialisms for the first time, write the name in full followed by the initialism in brackets— Queensland University of Technology (QUT). Each time you refer to this again in your assignment, just use QUT. • Do not use text abbreviations such as ‘lol’, ‘u’, ‘gr8’ or ‘IMHO’. • Do not use colloquial or slang words or phrases. 15 cite|write www.citewrite.qut.edu.au Tentative conclusions The conclusions you make from the evidence in your assignment should be fair, reasonable and provable. Definitive or absolute words make your statements easy to disprove. For example, the statement that ‘men are physically stronger than women’ can immediately be disproved if any woman is shown to be physically stronger than any man. Tentative words limit or modify statements to make them less than absolute. Examples of definitive and tentative words Definitive words Tentative words Example sentences using tentative language Everyone All Several Numerous Most Many Several studies report … Numerous patients have reported benefits in the first round of trials. Definitely Often Perhaps This often results in … Prove Indicated Suggest It is indicated in the data … cite|write www.citewrite.qut.edu.au 16 Academic writing terms These are terms that are often used at university. They may be unfamiliar or convey a different meaning from their common usage. (See also the Glossary in Study Smart studysmart.library.qut.edu.au/help/glossary.jsp) Abstract A summary of an article or paper, often appearing at the beginning of the paper. Active and passive voice In English, this refers to the way the verb is used in a sentence (the form of the verb). • An active voice means the focus of the sentence is on the person, animal or thing that is doing the action described by the verb, e.g. ‘The dog crossed the road’. • The passive voice means the focus of a sentence is on the person, animal or thing that is being acted upon, e.g. ‘The road is being crossed by the dog’. Argument An argument is a writing structure where you state your point of view and then provide evidence to support that point of view. The statement of your point of view is called the thesis statement and it is the direct response to the question or task of your assignment. Your argument and supporting evidence is outlined logically, in a series of points, written in paragraphs in the body of your work. Authoritative source Information used as evidence (references) in an assignment should only come from authoritative sources. (See also the entry below on Evidence.) Cite | citing | citation To cite is to acknowledge the author or source of the information or idea you have used as evidence to support your argument in your assignment. You must cite when: • you quote someone else in exactly the same words • you summarise someone else’s ideas • you paraphrase someone else’s ideas • you copy or reproduce information or data (such as a picture, a table or statistics). (See also p. 5 of Cite,
and module 4.5 of Study Smart for more information studysmart.library.qut.edu.au/module4/4_5) Conclusion The end of your assignment should repeat the topic, summarise the structure and restate your key message, such as the thesis statement in an essay. (See also p. 24.) Critical To be critical in an academic context does not mean being negative. It means to consider an idea, a reading, a website or a solution to a problem, examine all the different aspects, and then evaluate how good the information or idea is in terms of its purpose. A critical analysis may include some positive as well as negative points. (See also p. 27.) Evidence Evidence is a piece of information that supports a conclusion. Evidence for academic assignments comes from research in authoritative books, journals, websites and other sources. It may take the form of quotes from experts, data from experiments, statistics, pictures, graphs and tables. 17 cite|write www.citewrite.qut.edu.au Introduction The beginning of your assignment should introduce the topic, state the thesis and outline the structure of the assignment. (See also p. 22.) Paraphrase This involves expressing the same meaning as a text using different words from the original. Paraphrased text should be referenced. (See also p. 8.) Peer reviewed (scholarly) article A peer reviewed article is information written by an academic or expert in the field or discipline that has been reviewed by her/his peers to ensure that it has been properly researched and developed. Person Person refers to the perspective of the writing, and the writer’s ‘voice’. • First person refers to the writer. This style of writing uses the pronouns I, me, myself, my, mine, we, us, ourselves, our and ours. You might use this style when you are writing a reflection, or a report on an experiment where you are required to present information from a subjective or personal viewpoint. • Second person refers to the one being spoken to, using the pronouns you, yourself, your and yours. You might use this style when you are writing a review on someone else’s work, production or presentation. • Third person refers to the one being spoken about, and uses the pronouns he, she, it, him, her, himself, herself, his, hers, its, they, them, themselves, their and theirs. This style is used to present information from an objective or detached viewpoint. Most academic writing uses third person, however there are exceptions. Seek clarification from your lecturer or tutor if you are unsure. Point of view In assignments, you are often asked to defend your point of view or develop your argument relating to your topic. This does not mean that you are expected to write your personal feelings about the topic. In academic terms, developing a point of view or argument means to research the evidence known on that topic and develop and present your conclusions based on the evidence. Your personal ideas are not considered relevant in this context. Reference A reference is when you give detailed information—such as author, date, title and publishing details—about a source used in your work. A reference list usually appears at the end of your assignment. (See also p. 9.) Research For undergraduates, to research a topic means to write your assignment based on knowledge that has already been investigated, reviewed and accepted by the academics in your professional field. This knowledge is found in academic books, journals and other sources that are considered authoritative or scholarly. cite|write www.citewrite.qut.edu.au 18 Scope Scope refers to how widely a topic is covered and is dependent on the word length of the assignment, with longer assignments expected to cover the topic in more depth. Also, the scope reflects the extent to which the evidence can justify your argument. For example, if all your evidence is related to Australia, you can argue that your point of view may be relevant in Australia, but you cannot argue that it can be generalised to all the countries of the world. Thesis statement This is the most important sentence in the introduction. It is often the main sentence in the introduction and indicates your point of view (position or argument) on a topic. The thesis statement should be a direct answer or response to your assignment question or task. Word limit The word limit provides you with a guide as to how much work you are expected to present in your assignment. If you have exceeded your word limit, reread and remove any unnecessary language. If you have not reached your word limit you might need to broaden your research. Always read the assignment instructions to make sure you understand the expectations—for example, if it specifically states ‘no more than 500 words’ then do not go over that limit or you may be penalised in the marking. There are variations as to what is included in the word count. Appendices, abstracts, executive summaries and reference lists are not usually counted as part of the word limit. Quotations in the body of your paper are usually counted. A margin of 10 per cent over or under the word length is often acceptable. Always seek clarification from your lecturer or tutor on these variations. 19 cite|write www.citewrite.qut.edu.au Task analysis Before you start researching and writing your assignment, it is important that you understand what the question is asking you to do. Understanding the key words in the question will assist you with the research process and to more clearly structure your writing. The table below explains task words commonly used in assignment questions. Task words commonly used in assignment questions Account for • Explain why something has occurred. Analyse • Take apart a concept or statement in order to consider its elements. • Answers should be very methodical and logically organised. Argue • An argument means to clarify, prove or accuse (see Critical thinking, p. 27). • You must have a particular point of view supported by evidence from reliable sources. Assess • This requires a judgement about an idea or subject. • You may need to state whether the idea or subject being discussed is valuable or relevant after acknowledging points for and against it. • Your judgement should be influenced by other authors’ views as well as your own opinion (similar to Evaluate). Comment on • State your opinion on a topic or idea. • You may explain the topic or idea more fully. • Your opinion must be supported by evidence from reliable sources. Compare and contrast • Requires a balanced answer that sets items side by side and shows their similarities and differences. Contrast • Requires an answer that points out only the differences between two or more topics. Critically • Often used in conjunction with other directive words, such as critically discuss, critically examine or critically analyse. • It does not mean criticise. • Requires a balanced answer that points out mistakes or weaknesses and indicates any favourable aspects of the subject of the question. • The decision or overall judgement you make must be supported with evidence from reliable sources. Define • Requires an answer that explains the precise meaning of a concept. • A definition answer will include a discussion of a concept and may also state the limits of a concept. Describe • Requires you to identify and outline the attributes or characteristics of a subject. Differentiate • See Contrast. Discuss • Explain the item or concept, and then give details about it with supporting information, examples, points for and against, plus explanations for the facts put forward from various points of view. • This can be one of the most difficult types of assignment question. Enumerate • Requires you to list or specify and describe items or ideas one by one. Evaluate • See Assess. cite|write www.citewrite.qut.edu.au 20 Examine • Requires you to investigate a topic thoroughly. Explain • Offer a detailed and exact rationale behind an idea or principle, or a set of reasons for a situation or attitude. • The explanation should increase the reader’s understanding of a topic or idea. Explo
re • See Examine. Generate • This often requires you to come up with new ideas or interpretations on a subject. Hypothesise • A hypothesis is a theory regarding particular occurrences. You confirm hypotheses through testing. • Suggest the reasons for and processes by which something has occurred. Illustrate/ demonstrate • Requires an answer that consists mainly of examples to demonstrate or prove the subject of the question. • It is often accompanied with further instructions. Interpret • Very similar to Explain. • Describe what your subject means. • Examine the key components of a topic or idea and evaluate it. Investigate • Research, study and carefully survey all areas of the subject. Justify • Give only the reasons for a position or argument. • The proposition to be argued may be a negative one. • It should convince the reader of your point of view. Outline • Summarise information about a subject. • Only the main points and not the details should be included. • Questions of this type often require short answers. Prove/disprove • Both of these require answers that demonstrate the logical arguments and evidence connected with a proposition. • Prove requires the points ‘for’, and disprove requires the points ‘against’. Relate (relationship) • Make links or connections between two or more ideas, and show how these ideas are associated, as well as the nature of the relationship. Review • Analyse, criticise and comment on the main ideas of a topic. State • Requires an answer that expresses the relevant points briefly and clearly, without lengthy discussion or minor details. Summarise • See Outline. Trace • This is frequently used in historical questions (but not only in history courses). • Requires a statement and brief description—in logical order—of the stages in the development of a theory, a person’s life, a process, etc. Task analysis: Starting your assignments www.youtube.com/user/libraryqut 21 cite|write www.citewrite.qut.edu.au Academic writing structure Academic writing structure is the format used to clearly express the ideas that you develop based on your research. It may take many forms such as essays, reports, literature reviews, annotated bibliographies or reflective journals. This section focuses on essay writing as this is the foundation of all writing at university. An essay is composed of an introduction, body paragraphs and a conclusion. For more information on structure for other writing genres go to www.citewrite.qut.edu.au Overview The essay structure can be seen as a diamond with the introduction and conclusion at the top and bottom and the body paragraphs fitting into the middle of the diamond in a series of smaller diamond shapes. Diamond shape of whole essay Diamond shape of each body paragraph Introduction Introduces the topic States the thesis Outlines the essay structure Topic sentence: Introduces paragraph topic Evidence sentences: Provide reasons and evidence that support the topic sentence Concluding sentence: Summarises paragraph Repeats the topic Summarises the essay structure Restates the thesis Body paragraphs Conclusion This shape may need to be modified depending on the aspects you need to cover in your task. For example, you may have fewer or more than the four body paragraphs, or the assignment may have separate sections. It is essential that you check your unit details on QUT Blackboard or ask your lecturer or tutor for clear instructions about how to structure your assignment. cite|write www.citewrite.qut.edu.au 22 Introduction An introduction is a map for your reader and should be approximately 10 per cent of the total word count of your essay. An introduction should: 1. Reword the assignment topic to set the context of the essay. 2. Provide background information on the topic. This may include definitions of any important terms and the scope defining the limits of what you will discuss in the essay. 3. State your thesis. This is the main point of your essay. The thesis statement is usually the answer to the question or main response to the task. 4. Outline the main points of the essay that back up your thesis statement. These should be listed in the order in which they are addressed in the essay. Example of an introduction The assignment question Tourism is the third largest industry in Australia in terms of contribution to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Much of its success is due to Australia’s unique geography. Analyse the geographical factors that both contribute to and hinder the success of tourism in Australia. Introductory paragraph Paragraph element Purpose Example 1. Topic introduction The first sentence should introduce the topic— in this case the success of Australia’s tourism industry. It should reflect the first sentence of the question to set the context for your response. Australia’s tourism industry contributes 3.9 per cent of the country’s gross domestic product and Australia has been in the top ten of most desirable places to go on holiday 2000–2004 (Department of Resources, Energy and Tourism (RET), 2009). 2. Background information This outlines the main factors involved in this discussion about Australian geography and tourism success. The scope of the essay will only cover these factors. They are landforms, flora and fauna and Australia’s distance from other parts of the world. There are many reasons for this success but two major factors are Australia’s distinctive geography, particularly its unusual landforms (Georgiou, 2007) and unique flora and fauna (Zeehan, 2008). However, a complication for the success of Australian tourism is the tyranny of distance and the high costs involved for travellers, particularly those from the Northern hemisphere (Proctor & Thomas, 2004). 3. Thesis statement This next sentence is the main point of the essay. It defines the relationship between these geographic factors and tourism success by stating how and to what extent these factors influence tourist numbers. This statement is the main response to the assignment task outlined in the last sentence of the question. It will be argued that although logistical concerns warrant consideration, the value of the unique geography and wildlife outweigh the difficulties of Australia’s remote location. 4. Essay outline This needs to be a summary of the main points of your essay in the order in which they will be addressed in the body paragraphs. In this essay the role of these three geographic factors—landscape, wildlife and distance—will be analysed. 23 cite|write www.citewrite.qut.edu.au Body paragraphs These paragraphs are the building blocks of an essay. They outline the points that link the main idea of the thesis to the evidence found in your research. Each paragraph (or group of paragraphs) should: 1. Start with a topic sentence that links the point of the paragraph with the main thesis statement of your essay. 2. Provide extra information to clarify or define terms or ideas related to this topic. 3. Cite evidence from your research to support the point you are making. 4. End with a concluding sentence that links the paragraph back to the main thesis or on to the next paragraph. Example of a body paragraph This paragraph supports the third point in the table on p. 22. Paragraph element Purpose Example 1. Topic sentence This sentence starts by referring to the thesis that Australia’s geography accounts for much of its tourism success. However, it continues to include the main point of this paragraph, which is that one aspect of Australia’s geography, its remoteness, reduces that success. Australia’s geography accounts for much of its success as a tourist destination, yet it is also one of the most remote countries on earth. 2. Additional information This explains further the point made in the topic sentence. Both the proximity and the availability of other competing destinations put pressure on the Australian tourism industry. 3. Evidence sentences These are essential to justify your point. Your evidence comes from your research and may include examples, data, quotes, statistics, graphics and illustr
ations. All supporting evidence must be from authoritative sources and correctly cited in your essay. Overseas visitors take an average of 17 hours to reach Australia, twice as long as travel to other geographically unique locations (Proctor & Thomas, 2004). Physical landmarks such as The Grand Canyon, Mount Fuji and the Amazon Rainforest are all more accessible than Uluru for the majority of world travellers (Proctor & Thomas, 2004). Wildlife tourism such as in Tanzania and Kenya or the biodiversity of Costa Rica provide travellers cheaper experiences than visiting Australia (Proctor & Thomas, 2004). Also, international zoos frequently enable people to see Australian wildlife without leaving their home countries (Proctor & Thomas, 2004). 4. Concluding sentence Again, this sentence links the main thesis of the essay with the main point of the paragraph. It is likely that Australia misses out on potential tourism dollars due to physical separation from world population hubs. cite|write www.citewrite.qut.edu.au 24 Conclusion The conclusion is similar to the introduction except that the elements are placed in a different order. A conclusion should: 1. Restate the topic by paraphrasing the question. 2. Sum up the main points made in your essay. 3. Link these back to the thesis statement that is the main point of your essay. Example of a conclusion This is the conclusion of the example assignment question on p. 22. Paragraph element Purpose Example 1. Topic restatement This paraphrases the language of the question. Australia’s abundant and unique geographical features make it a very desirable tourist destination. 2. Summary of main points Include a brief summary of the main points in your essay. These should be in the order in which they were addressed. Tourists visit Australia for its incredible landforms, beaches and rainforests. They are captivated by Australia’s distinctive wildlife both in the wild and within zoological gardens. While it is true that Australia is one of the more remote tourist locations on earth, this distance offers an additional component to a traveller’s experience and sense of adventure. 3. Thesis restatement Link these points back to the main thesis statement made in your introduction. Australia’s tourism benefits from geographic features, both geological and ecological, that set it apart from any other destination on earth. The distance from other countries mostly enhances the unique travelling experience offered by the land ‘Down Under’. For an example of a completed essay go to ‘Writing Structure Overview’ in the Writing section of studywell.library.qut.edu.au 25 cite|write www.citewrite.qut.edu.au Linking it all together As well as structuring each individual paragraph in the body of your essay, you need to ensure that there is a logical flow to your essay. This is done by using transition signals, which are words and phrases that show the relationship between the information of one paragraph and the information of the next. These transition signals are mostly found in the topic and concluding sentences of the paragraphs. Useful linking words and phrases (transitions) Continuing an idea or introducing another idea Showing cause and effect In addition … Similarly … Furthermore … Continuing this idea … Pursuing this further … Additionally … Consequently … Because … Also … In the same way … Moreover … Clearly then … Following … Therefore … For this reason … Thus … Consequently … In response … As a result of … The result … Due to this … The reaction … Providing a contrasting or alternative view Showing sequence or time relationship On the other hand … Or … Yet … In opposition to … Whereas … Unlike the previous example … Instead … Although … However … While … In contrast … Nonetheless … Even though … Contrary to these findings … In spite of … Despite these findings … Firstly … After … Later … Sometime … Thereafter … Secondly … As soon as … Meanwhile … Presently … Then … Finally … In the meantime … Next … Eventually … Soon … In the first place … Afterwards … Restating a point or giving an example In other words … For instance … To demonstrate … Specifically … For example … To illustrate … One such occurrence … Also … 25 cite|write www.citewrite.qut.edu.au cite|write www.citewrite.qut.edu.au 26 Integrating evidence In addition to ensuring logical flow in your writing, it is important to incorporate evidence from academic sources to support your arguments. Example According to Proctor and Thomas (2004), it is Australia’s isolation that is a key factor in tourists’ decision making. Example Harris disputes this argument, noting that “ . . .” (2009). Example Proctor and Thomas’ (2004) rationale is supported by Brown and Clark (2012) who state that . . . Useful words for integrating evidence Useful words for integrating references and quotes into your assignments Useful words for integrating additional sources into your work to agree with existing evidence Useful words for integrating additional sources into your work to refute existing evidence Articulates Demonstrates Affirms Argues Asserts Explains Corroborates Challenges Claims Hypothesises Supports Contradicts Comments Observes Substantiates Contrasts Indicates Predicts Verifies Debates Reports Reasons Disputes States Doubts Suggests Rejects Refutes Opposes 27 cite|write www.citewrite.qut.edu.au Critical thinking Critical thinking is a questioning process that is central to writing, reading and learning at university. Critical thinking is required when an assignment asks you to: Analyse Argue Assess Justify Criticise Evaluate Examine Prove Explore Interpret Disprove Critical thinking is a skill used to develop new knowledge or understanding about a subject. When you are asked to ‘be critical’, this means you need to question the arguments being made, either by yourself in your own writing, or by others in your readings. The following are options to consider when thinking critically. Critical thinking Consider strengths and weaknesses of the argument Question and evaluate the evidence Relate theory to your field of practice Consider alternatives cite|write www.citewrite.qut.edu.au 28 Critical thinking model Improve your critical thinking by separating the thoughts you wish to convey in your writing into three sections. This enhances clarity for your reader. Claim = What? What is the main point or thesis you want to convey to your audience? To address your assessment task adequately, you need a series of logical arguments or reasons to support this main point. Your assessment task Evidence = How? How will you support your claim (main points) with research? This may include authoritative books, journals, data and statistics. Relevance = Why? In what ways does this evidence support your claim? This is your analysis linking your topic and your evidence 29 cite|write www.citewrite.qut.edu.au Critical thinking: example Remember these critical thinking elements from p. 30: When: • reading and selecting evidence • explaining the relevance of your evidence to your claim. Critical thinking Consider strengths and weaknesses of the argument Question and evaluate the evidence Relate theory to your field of practice Consider alternatives Claim = What? Australia’s isolation is attractive. The impact of geography on Australian tourism Evidence = How? Tourists are willing to pay extra to experience a sense of adventure and distance from their normal lives (Georgiou, 2007, p. 30). Relevance = Why? • Landmarks such as The Grand Canyon, Mount Fuji and the Amazon Rainforest are all more accessible than Uluru for the majority of world travellers (Proctor & Thomas, 2004, p. 36). • Thus, even though Australia appears to present a physical obstacle, tourists compensate by allocating more of their vacation budget to have a unique experience (Georgiou, 2007, p. 30). cite|write www.citewrite.qut.edu.au 30 Elements of critical thinking Critical thinking element Purpose Example 1. Claim The claim is the argument yo
u want your audience to accept. You summarise your argument in the thesis statement of an essay. It will be argued that although logistical concerns warrant consideration, the value of the unique geography and wildlife outweigh the difficulties of Australia’s remote location as a tourist destination. 2. Data Data is the evidence that supports your claim. You should source data from academic sources such as peer reviewed articles, government publications or other types approved by your lecturer and available via the library. Australia’s Tourism Commissioner states that 87 per cent of tourists (2000–2004) cited extraordinary natural phenomena as a significant motivating reason for their visit to Australia (RET, 2009). A study with Australia Post found postcards featuring Australian animals were sent overseas more frequently than all other postcard types combined (Zeehan, 2008, p. 52). … tourists often cite remoteness as a positive reason to travel to Australia. A British backpacker claims that he, ‘came to Perth because it was the most isolated city on earth’ (Georgiou, 2007, p. 30). 3. Warrant Warrant is what explains why the data supports the claim. Thinking about warrant can improve your argument, helping you to avoid simplistic or invalid thinking. Sometimes you need to explain your warrant explicitly in your essay, or sometimes it can be assumed depending on your reader. What people say actually influences what they do. International postcards are most frequently sent by tourists. The experience of a British backpacker is representative of tourists more broadly. 4. Backing Backing is the principle or underlying authority that grounds the warrant. Backing can be a rule, theory, law or fact that persuades your audience to accept that the warrant is reasonable. Just like warrant, backing can be part of your critical thinking process and may or may not end up explicitly discussed in your essay. 87 per cent is a statistically significant number of tourists. Tourists do not choose their postcards randomly. Tourists chose their postcards based on their own preferences, rather than the preferences of the people they are sending the postcard to. Backpackers spend 68 per cent of total tourist dollars in Australia. 5. Rebuttal Rebuttal is any evidence that counts against the data, warrant or backing of an argument. Overseas visitors take an average of 17 hours to reach Australia, twice as long as travel to other geographically unique locations (Proctor & Thomas, 2004, p. 35). 6. Qualifier A qualifier is used to alter the strength of a claim. While it is true that Australia is one of the more remote tourist locations on earth, this distance offers an additional component to a traveller’s experience and sense of adventure. Use the critical thinking elements to: • Summarise the argument structure of an author. • Evaluate the claims made by an author. • Structure your own assignment. • Assess your own assignment for logical weaknesses. cite|writeTEMPLATES Find templates to use when studying for your assignments at www.citewrite.qut.edu.au Referencing and notetaking template First, record all the important reference details for the information sources you use for your study and assignment, such as books, book chapters, journal articles and websites. Once you have these details, you can easily adapt the information to suit the referencing style you are required to use for your assessment (e.g. QUT Harvard, QUT APA, QUT Numbered or QUT Legal). Next, record extra details about those sources so that you can find the information again and recall particular facts or details about the information that might assist you in your writing task. Note down keywords you used to find the information, and other details such as a call numbers or web addresses. Then, use the lower section of the template to write notes from your reading and research, organising them into the three columns: • 1st column: record themes or key ideas from your reading. • 2nd column: record the page number that the key idea was on and some notes or a direct quote. • 3rd column: record your own comments and questions about the key idea/s. This may be how you will use the idea in your assignment, or how this idea relates to other ideas you have found in your research. Also, list new questions the idea raises that might need further clarification or investigation. This column helps you to think critically about the information you are finding for your assignment. 33 cite|write www.citewrite.qut.edu.au cite|write www.citewrite.qut.edu.au 34 Details Tip Your notes WHO? Record the name of the person, people or organisations that have written, compiled or produced the article, book, book chapter, website, DVD, etc. These may be authors, producers, editors, directors, government bodies or companies. WHAT? Record the title of the information. This might be a single title, such as a book, government report or Act, or you might need to record two titles—e.g. a book title and the title of a book chapter, or a journal article title and the title of the journal. WHEN? Record the date the information was published, released or produced. For websites, this is the date you visited the site and retrieved the information. If there is no date, make a note so you know you have not forgotten this detail. WHERE? Record the place the information was published, released or produced. For websites, this is the site address of the information. WHAT ELSE? Record other details that you might need to use in your referencing, citing and writing. These might include page numbers, volume and issue numbers of journal articles, DOI numbers and names of databases. KEYWORDS Record key words and concepts you used to find this information. This will help you find the information again or to search for related information in other sources. 35 cite|write www.citewrite.qut.edu.au Extra notes: Themes/key concepts Notes/quotes (and page numbers) Your comments, questions or new ideas cite|write www.citewrite.qut.edu.au 36 Critical thinking template Use this template to: • Analyse the argument of an author. • Evaluate the claims made by an author. • Structure your own assignment. • Edit your own assignment for reasoning weaknesses. Claim = What? Task Evidence = How? Relevance = Why? 37 cite|write www.citewrite.qut.edu.au NOTES: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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CRICOS No.00213J © QUT 2015 21825 The booklet Explains the different styles used at QUT and why you need to reference carefully. It also explains how to write academically. READ TH
IS TO BEGIN The people www.library.qut.edu.au/help At the Library Helpdesk you can ask questions about referencing and writing your assignment. You can also chat with us online. ASK FOR HELP The website www.citewrite.qut.edu.au Provides you with reference and citing examples and writing guides. Use it for: planning your writing, citing your sources and compiling your reference list. USE THIS ALL THE TI M E How to use QUT cite|write QUICK TIPS The videos www.youtube.com/user/ libraryqut Watch our short videos for quick tips about citing and referencing

 

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