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If cupric oxide (CuO) is exposed to reducing atmospheres at

If cupric oxide (CuO) is exposed to reducing atmospheres at

If cupric oxide (CuO) is exposed to reducing atmospheres at elevated temperatures, some of the Cu2+ ions will become Cu+.
(a) Under these conditions, name one crystalline defect that you would expect to form in order to maintain charge neutrality.
(b) How many Cu+ ions are required for the creation of each defect?
(c) How would you express the chemical formula for this nonstoichiometric material?

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