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Describe the evidence presented in the paper you selected. Specifically address the following questions

Describe the evidence presented in the paper you selected. Specifically address the following questions

-What is the issue addressed in the paper?

– What was the exposure or intervention?

-What was the outcome?

-What was the study design?

-What was the study population?

-What were the main findings?

 

QUESTION 2:

 

Do you think there is evidence of a causal association between the exposure and the outcome? This question relates to the internal validity of the study. Consider the following questions in your critique:

-Is there a temporal relationship between exposure and outcome?

-Is there a strong relationship between the exposure and the outcome?

-Is there a dose-response relationship between exposure and the outcome?

-Are the results consistent within the study?

 

QUESTION 3:

 

To what extent can the observed association between the exposure and outcome be attributed to non-causal explanations? Consider the following questions in your critique:

-Are the results likely to be affected by selection and/or measurement bias?

-Are the results likely to be affected by confounding?

-Are the results likely to be affected by chance variation?

 

QUESTION 4:

 

Do the findings accord with other evidence? Specifically:

-Are the findings consistent with other evidence, particularly evidence from studies of similar or more powerful study design?

-Are the results plausible in terms of a biological mechanism?

 

QUESTION 5:

 

Are the findings externally valid, that is generalisable? Specifically:

-Can the findings be applied to the source population from which the study population was derived?

-Can the study results be applied to other relevant populations?

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