Receptors and neurotransmitters are like lock and key systems. Just as it takes the right key to open a specific lock, it takes the right neurotransmitter to bind to a specific receptor (Laureate Learning, 2021).
Explain to agonist and to antagonist spectrum of action of psychopharmacologic agents.
Agonists and antagonists act in opposite directions. When an agonist produces an action, the antagonist opposes the action. The Agonists are drugs with both affinities which bind to the target receptor, and intrinsic efficacy with change receptor activity to produce a response. The presence of an antagonist will reduce receptor occupancy by an agonist with a corresponding reduction in response. When the concentration of the agonist has increased its occupancy increases, and the inhibitory mechanism of the antagonist reduces. In turn, the agonist gains a full or partial response (Camprodon &Roffman, 2016)
Compare and contrast the actions of g couple proteins and ion gated channels.
The G -protein-coupled receptors are a large protein group located on the cell membrane and bind to extracellular substances. The receptors then transmit signals from extracellular material to the G protein in the intracellular space. Ion channel linked receptors bind a ligand and open a channel through the membrane that allows the specific ion to pass through.
Explain how the role of epigenetics may contribute to pharmacological action.
Epigenetics refers to the genetic information aimed at understanding the function of the entire genome epigenetics in pharmacology helps scientists and prescribers tackle diseases by understanding it helps them prescribe the right medication doses manage them.
Impact on the way you prescribe medications to clients
Most medications alter a person’s chemical balance and pathway by enhancing specific neurotransmitters in the body that can lead to either desired effects or undesired effects. Examples could be antipsychotics and mood stabilizers like Haldol and Seroquel, which may work by blocking transmitters in the brain (Rosenthal & Burchum, 2018). However, these medications may cause heavy side effects called extrapyramidal effects like jerky movements, involuntary movements of the tongue, mouth, and jaw (Rosenthal & Burchum, 2018). So, the prescriber or the PMHNP should target the benefit of the medication to the patient.